This short PowToon video was created to explain the vision vector. Implementing change with technology is not easy, and this video explains how the vision vector can support leaders through their planning.
Is there a place for technology in Physical Education? Is technology being implemented successfully within PE to replace the “old fashioned” traditional approach to lessons? This subject is “connected with sweat in the truest sense of the word” and the “human body is seen as the main media” (Kretschmann, 2010, p. 432). The essence is practical, therefor can and should technology have a place within this subject? Bonnie (2005) provides an excellent overview of how the technology NET-S standards can be implemented highlighting that teacher can “simultaneously address NETS-S” while remaining true to the physical foundations (p. 50). In addition, Quennerstedt, 2013 believes technology encourages diverse ways to participate by taking part in “ ‘sports for real’ and as ‘sports for real… but not really for real’ ” (p.49) diversifying students participation, learning process and contribution levels. This research is enlightening, however what does implementation really look like? What is being used and is it truly beneficial in enhancing lessons?
I believe teacher experience, efficacy and computer literacy has a significant effect on this thorny issue. Research gives us excellent, and forward-thinking subjective views, but in order to be successful within our vision, we must accept our PE teachers (just like our students) cannot be assumed to be digital natives! Kretschmann (2015) studied a group of teachers who found that many did not use technology and a main factor in this was their computer literacy and competence to use instructional technology and media. It’s “infusion” tended to be stereo systems or images rather than more innovative technologies that now exist (e.g. laptops or IPads). I believe we can purchase as many devices or software as schools like, but if they are not utilized appropriately, technology has little or no place in Physical Education! Thomas and Stratton (2006) believe that “combining the ‘new’ interest of these students with the age-old institution of the PE lesson could see results boom and levels of attainment increased” (p. 618). The results show that the higher the proficiency, the more likelihood technology would be implemented successfully, therefor how might we address this elephant in the room? Consequently, I strongly believe teachers who lack confidence and believe that implementing technology is too much of a challenge needs support. This barrier for implementation in my view can be resolved.
Many of our teachers would agree with Kretschmann, (2010) when he states that it is arguable that our subject is an “opposite construct against media consumption”, and we are aiming instead to enhance their motivation to be physically active. Some teachers regard “technology”, in general terms as “a foreign object, which is contrary to the physical activity tasks and attitude” (p. 432). With this said, and in light of research highlighted, I believe we must address two aspects to support our vision.
1. Action plan specific of curriculum – Missionary thinkingThe teachers current reality needs to change, and with change requires vision, skills, incentives, resources and finally an action plan (Churches, 2009). In addition, it is vital to consider the needs of specific PE departments and the individuals needs.
2. Support for staff with change and professional development. Teachers with the least training were least likely to use any technology (Thomas and Stratton, 2006, p. 625).
There are two pieces of work I have particularly enjoyed completing lately; the Formative Assessment task and the Infographic. The Formative Assessment task has been a productive in encourage me to develop my existing assessment practices, however I have chosen the Infographic as my “best work”. Infographics are a beneficial tool within teaching because they are easy to understand, structured, concise and portray the main ideas within a topic. The graphic presentation provides a large amount of information but just enough to become interested and aware of key concepts.
This task within a recent course with Michigan State University, (CEP 813) was to look at assessment FOR, AS and OF learning. This setup meant assessment aimed to “play a more useful role in helping students learn” as the process was “moved into the middle of the teaching and learning process instead of being postponed as only the end-point of instruction”, (Shepard, 2000, p.10). Firstly, we had access to well-defined guidelines stating a number of topics that we could use for inspiration, as well as the assessment criteria. This meant I had a clear focus and direction before beginning the creative process, as I thought over my ideas. This can be classed as assessment AS learning as we were able to monitor our progress in relation to the expectations provided. This supported my learning, as I like to have a defined idea of the intention and goal of the task. I found this helpful, and this task was a meaningful opportunity to produce something specific to the audience, introducing more technology staff members. I produced a piece of work that can immediately be used to benefit others in the department.
The infographic was shared with a peer within the course and evaluated based on the criteria. This part of the process was peer assessment FOR learning. It was “designed or used specifically to boost student learning” (Noyce, 2011, p. 1). Unfortunately I did not find the peer assessment useful, as they were able to give me significant points for consideration. The next step was a review by course organizers who gave my one point to work on. This means “students and teachers look to assessment as a source of insight and help instead of an occasion for meting out rewards and punishments” (Shepard, 2000, p. 10). Personally, when I put my mind to a task, I do it to the best of my ability, therefor have some trouble when asked to review and resubmit as I aim to have nothing to improve on after the first attempt! This task reinforced what a perfectionist I am, and let me consider the process of second submission with my students. I wonder whether for some, this process accepts that students can do a halfhearted attempt first time round, as they know they get a second chance. Otherwise if done well this assessment AS learning can and should also be assessment OF learning depending on the student, the task difficult and whether additions are to be made in subsequent versions.
Noyce, P. (2011). Introduction and overview: The elusive promise of formative assessment. In P.E. Noyce & D.T. Hickey (Eds.) New frontiers in formative assessment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
Shepard, L. (2000). The role of assessment in a learning culture. Educational Researcher, 29(7), 4-14.
I have set up my digital portfolio as a means to present the work I have done during my Masters of Arts in Education. During CEP813, I have used this digital portfolio as a sandbox for thinking about assessment in digital contexts. This has had a number of advantages for me as a teacher and a learner. Now that I am reaching the end of this course, I have been able to look back and enjoy reviewing the progress I have made.
Reflection of a portfolio can encourage the “re-examination of underlying beliefs and values in light of practical experience and reflection” that ultimately allows teachers to “think about their own learning and ideally, to identify their own teaching style, strengths and areas for growth”, (Chitpin and Simon, 2009, p290). Using a digital portfolio has encouraged me to consider where I should go next in relation to my professional development. Specifically this course has challenged me “to cyclically reflect on taken-for-granted assumptions, articulate growth and gain perspectives” (Chitpin and Simon, 2009, p277) as I personally have had more a more meaningful experience within CEP813 in comparison to the Sports and Leadership concentration.
The digital portfolios are a representation of a professional’s ability and accomplishments where they can create, store, review and update their work. That in turn can empower a person to progress, learn more and share their work with other like-minded individuals. It has been interesting to look at my classmates work within their sandboxes in order to see how others from different subjects are experiencing and using the knowledge within CEP813. Availability of others digital portfolios means it is easy access their showcase, covering a range of interest, knowledge and viewpoints helping professionals access new ideas. The use of sharing tools such as Twitter has opened up a world of communication allowing professionals to summarize their ideas and connect with others from different sides of the world. In addition,
I have been proud to show other members of staff some of the work I have done as a means to engage in discussion. This has been with members of the department, other teachers (e.g. ICT Teachers), and members of the leadership team. I feel this has been beneficial in order to let people know that within the Physical Education department, we are looking to make improvements, develop our ideas and move away from the limitations of traditional approach to teaching in this subject. My sandbox of ideas are examples of what others could do in the future to develop their assessment using digital portfolios, IPads and apps.
I am in the process of creating student “Sportfolios” and during this, my students have mentioned how interesting it will be to look back on them in a number of years time. Maybe we, in CEP813 will be in that same position. In retrospect, what will technology look like and what developments will happen that will affect how we use digital medium in the future? Lets see!
S. Chitpin and M. Simon (2009), "'Even if no-one looked at it, it was important for my own development’: Pre-service teacher perceptions of professional portfolios," Australian Journal of Education 53(3) Article 5, 277 - 293
The use of digital portfolios is not a new idea. Back in 1997, Mohnsen and Medon were writing about the use of electronic portfolios within Physical Education. They believed this allowed teachers to authentically assess student performances to monitor fitness, develop the use of skills and as a means to reflect on work completed (Mohnsen and Medon, 1997, Mohnson, 1997). To read back from research done nearly 20 years ago (where they explore the use of floppy disc or cd recorder for storage!), we must question why now the concept is still not widely used. Through my experience within CEP813, I have learned how easy it is to access the technology that supports digital portfolios within Physical Education. With the use of apps, add-ons, blogs and Google, setting up such a facility is accessible to all. In my opinion, it is vital to change PE teacher’s perspective on the misconception that implementing “new” technology such as digital portfolios, is creating additional, time consuming work.
I plan to use portfolios in order to give students a space to store their work in order for them to
I plan to use digital portfolios as a method of differentiation, in order to allow students of different abilities to learn and develop their skills at an appropriate pace. Different tasks can be set up for the varying abilities within classes to ensure students are challenged and focused on self-improvement of both practical capability and knowledge and understanding of a concept. It is important to ensure those who are less practically able and those who are talented sportspeople are challenge appropriately, formulate ideas and reflect on their work. Their portfolios are a showcase of their best work and have been found to have positive effects that enhance learning experiences “including self-awareness of their own learning process, which could improve their attitude towards the value and the status of PE” (Chan, 2005).
Beard, J. (2015) Implementing Portfolios in Physical Education, Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 86(7), 48-49
Chan, W. (2005) Effectiveness of the Physical Education Portfolio Approach, Physical Education Curriculum Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, suppl. Research Consortium Abstracts, 76(1), 64
Niguidula, D. (2005). Documenting learning with digital portfolios. Educational Leadership, 63(3), 44-47
Mohnsen, B. (1997) Authentic Assessment in Physical Education. Learning & Leading with Technology, 24(7), 30-33
Mohnsen, B. & Mendon, K. (1997), Electronic Portfolios, Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators 11(2), 13-16
Following on from my previous post, I have updated and reviewed my Formative Assessment. This allowed me to add sections including Integration of Assessment, Instructions for Learners, Feedback Plan and a Design Rationale.
As part of this review, I also rolled out the Sportfolio to the first class and THIS WEEK will be trying it out! I found it technically straightforward to setup so would encourage all PE teachers out there to give it a go in their school!
Here is my link to my Formative Assessment 2.0. Please note, version 1.0 is also part of this document, therefor feel free to fast forward to page 13 for the start of version 2.0.
This week, I have been looking at peer assessment and the use of Sportfolios as a formative assessment design within Physical Education.
This has included reflection on Module 1 and 2 within CEP 813. There have been numerous articles, and Wiggins and McTighe's (2005) work "Understanding by Design" that are reflected within my report. As well as outlining the purpose of my method of assessment, I have also discussed the learning process, what is meant by understanding and how this assessment would effect instruction within class. The report concludes with an exploration of three digital tools that I am very excited to try out in the near future.
I believe there are so many possibilities out there within technology that can enhance what teachers do in school. In addition, I feel there is a need to change people perspectives firstly to integrate more technology into lessons, especially using IPads in Physical Education. Secondly, I wish teachers would consider the importance of assessment within their teaching and learning. The three must be considered as one within planning in order to produce meaningful learning experiences.
For more information, please read more in my report Formative Assessment Design.
This week, I have been reading "Understanding by Design" by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (2005). This book contains their ideas on a framework to promote teachers to plan efficiently and with a clear purpose. This relates to assessing for understanding and the use of "backward" curriculum design. Using this concept, I critically reviewed the use of peer assessment in Physical Education by looking at how it is generally used in class. In addition to explaining why and how peer assessment is used, I also considered it's impact as an assessment genre in line with Wiggins and McTighes' (2005) work.
I then was able to create a list of recommendations for teachers to consider, and looked into how this method of assessment could be modified within a digital context.
Here is the link to Google Docs - Critical Review of Peer Assessment in Physical Education - J. Keyte
This blog post relates to an assignment given as part of Module 1 within CEP 813, Electronic Assessment. The focus of this assignment was to read, and summarize the main ideas of two articles; Lorrie Shepard's (2000) “The Role of Assessment in a Learning Culture”, and Ruth Dann’s (2014) article “Assessment as learning: Blurring the boundaries of assessment and learning for theory, policy and practice”. I have offered a clear overview of the main ideas of both authors, in a way that draws upon connections and highlights any similarities and differences within their work.
Link to Google Doc Assessment Precis - J. Keyte
This evaluation is in the form of a rubric for an activity called Kinball. This activity is the first I teach in the school year for a number of reasons.
- It is unique and out of 100 students in the grade, normally 1-3 students have heard of it!
- It is an activity that does not require high skill levels (as in other games sports) therefor it is easy to pick up and play competitively without mastery of techniques (i.e. less drill based practices).
- As a result, no student can be labeled “good” at the activity from the start. Stereotypes that come with being “good” at an activity means others, who class themselves as less able in PE, are easily self conscious/threatened. All students can do well in this activity and the majority of the success comes from creating strategies and being aware, rather than being physically able.
- Highly inclusive because of the structure and roles within the design of the game itself.
Please contact me for more information, and feel free to check out some YouTube clips for an idea of how the game is played, and how the experts compete. (Please note my students are not quite as intense as this (yet)!)
Please see Kinball Rubric file or PDF available for download.
Reflection of Assessment/Evaluation
a) How would I describe the design of this assessment?
This assessment is in the form of a rubric. In order to assess in PE, I observe students throughout the unit of work. This allows me to gauge initial experience and ability level in order to decipher how to instruct the students within lessons (i.e. informal feedback based on rubric). In addition, I am able to see individual improvements and give students credit based on their work over a period of time.
b) What is the purpose of the assessment?
The purpose of the assessment is to give me a reference to the standards expected during units of work, linking with observable aspects of performance. It acts as the basis of planning also to ensure the theme of the standard runs through the lessons with as many links as possible. Furthermore, the students are aware of this rubric and have access in order for them to a reference to what I expect when they are participating.
c) How does this assessment align, if at all, with the curriculum standards that guide my professional practice?
The block planning for the unit of work relates to the standards and the rubric has been created based on what standard will be assessed. Standards are assessed at numerous times throughout the year in a variety of activities. The block planning relates to the rubric explicitly and strongly influences the content within lessons.
d) What information will this assessment give me about each student?
This rubric aims to give me information about the level in which a student is implementing a concept/idea based on the standard. Our primary focus in Grade 9 and 10 Physical Education is to give students the opportunity to utilize and build upon the foundation skills needed to successfully perform physical activities. Activities are set with consideration for the varying abilities and sporting experiences of the learners, to better serve the different needs of individuals, focusing on positive development throughout the course. Ultimately, this means individual improvement/development is considered and a Grade A can look differently depending on the improvements made. In addition, activities like Kinball do not focus on execution of technique therefor someone can explain or demonstrate “use of defensive and offensive strategies” (standard 1E) in different forms.
e) How do I intend to use the information provided by this assessment?
I use this to guide lessons and to offer feedback to the learner. I can initiate questions from this rubric, e.g. what might I want to see in this next play to demonstrate that you can “quickly makes a decision regarding execution of gross or fine motor skill to execute pre-planned idea”? (standard 1E). In addition, I am required to convert this into a grade for students, in the category “Sports Skills Performance” (Standard 1 – 3 in this case) and “Participation” (Standards 5 – 7 in all activities throughout the year). Excellent equates to an A+, A or A-, good a B+, B or B- and so on.
f) What assumptions have I made about whether this assessment will, in fact, give me the information I need about the students who do it?
I assume a number of things!
- The students understand the language – I have reworded the standards to simplify the language, however that they are understood is an assumption.
- Students are listening and care about their assessment. It will come to no surprise that for many, PE is not held in the same light as “academic subjects”. This idea comes with its own issues, one of which is taking assessment seriously!
- I assume students are happy with their grade based on the way their performance has been observed and reported by me. What I mean here is that this is subjective and it is important for students to understand their level in a way that relates to the grade.
- I assume the assessment is meaningful. Personally I am not sure. We are driven by grades and students are on the verge of obsessed! They see an A and they are satisfied. I am not sure after this point they are considering their learning experience!
g) What skills have I assumed students have that will enable them to complete this assignment?
At this point in the year, I am trying to establish the philosophy behind what we do in High School PE. It is different from MS that bases their grades on skill execution and standardized fitness tests. I hope Kinball helps establish the ethos I want to create, where ultimately we are all individuals and like different things. We are not all “sporty” but that does not, and will not affect our success in this subject.
h) For whom would this assessment prove difficult? Why?
When I really think about this question, I believe this assessment might be difficult for those who are very physically able. This may be the subject where they excel and might struggle to see themselves getting the same grade as someone who is not as practical as them. This comes with the nature of the subject. I imagine some students who enjoy the comparison in PE (because they are often overachievers) would feel short changed.
i) Based on my readings this week, are there ways that I can imagine re-designing this assessment so that it's better in some way? Explain your rationale and justification for your re-design idea(s).
Based on the readings, I propose two changes for the use of this assessment so that it is better.
1. My first improvement is more of a work in progress, and taken from the idea of “learning from history”… my version; asking the students about how (after one unit) they feel about the assessment. Shepard and Dann have drawn upon numerous researchers to construct their discussions with their articles. In order for me to research, I think it would be useful to ask the students, either formally or informally what they think about assessment and in turn discovery what it (the rubric) does to contribute to their learning. The focus of both articles centered on having assessment, teaching and learning more blended, and I think I do this. The research results from my students may say otherwise! This may not be classed as an improvement so to say, but I believe it would in turn allow me to make applied changes to this assessment.
2. When I consider the nature of the subject, I think it may be useful to offer different ways to express what students know about the topic/standard. Some may find it easier to write about a structure or strategy, rather than show it, for example. This is an ongoing debate in PE but I think it is important to be able to give students different opportunities to express what they know. PE teachers can be limited in their view of how students should show what they know or understand within a concept. I immediately imagine someone standing with a clipboard making ticks as they see an action being executed. Is this genuine assessment of someone’s ability? I would question it. When I think of the statement “the way assessment is used in classrooms and how it is regarded by teachers and students must change” (Shepard, 2000), I think about the form it comes in, not just having it included in lesson planning. As a result, I would like to consider how tasks themselves can link to expressing what they know with regards to the rubric. This is more of an addition to the resource bank and re-design as a means to be forward thinking to meet the various needs of students, and ultimately encourage them to do their best.